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Crop Production :: Oil Seeds:: Groundnut

 
FIELD PREPARATION
  • Plough with tractor using a disc followed by harrow, once or twice with iron plough or 3 - 4 times with country plough till all the clods are broken and a fine tilth is obtained. 
  • Chiselling for soils with hard pan: Chisel the soils having hard pan formation at shallow depth with chisel plough first at 0.5 m interval in one direction and then in the direction perpendicular to the previous one, once in three years. Apply 12.5 t/ha FYM or composted coir pith besides chiseling. 
  • Amendments for soil surface crusting:  a) to tide over the surface crusting, apply lime @ 2 t/ha along with FYM or composted coir pith @ 12.5 t/ha. b) When coir pith at 12.5 t/ha is converted into compost by inoculating with Pleurotus and applied, it serves as a good source of nutrient.
2. APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS
Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendation. If soil test is not done, follow the blanket recommendation.

N and K in three splits viz., 50 % N & K as basal + 25 % N and K at 20 DAS + 25 % N and K at 45 DAS is recommended.


3. FORMING BEDS
  • Form beds of size 10 m2 to 20 m2 depending upon the availability of water, slope of the land and type of soil.
  •  Wherever tractor is engaged, bed former may be used.
  • Ridges and furrows may be laid at 60cm spacing between ridges and sowing taken on both sides of the ridge
  • Raised bed with a width of 60cm and with a furrow of 15cm on either side may be formed and sowing taken on the raised bed
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4. POLYTHENE FILM MULCHING
Broad beds and furrows method of groundnut cultivation is a proven technology from ICRISAT. Considering the favourable environment in the Broad beds and furrows system for the development of groundnut pods, with a little modification in the size, beds are to be formed for the polyethylene film mulched groundnut. Make the beds at a width of 60 cm, leaving 15 cm on the either side for the furrows. In a plot size of 4.5 m x 6.0 m, five beds can be made. After the formation of the bed and fertilizer application, spread black polythene sheet (90 cm width) over the soil surface. The edges of the polyethylene can be sheet Seven micron polythene film sheet @50 kg/ha is required. Holes can be made at required spacing of 30 x10 cm before spreading of the sheets. The seed requirement is similar to normal groundnut cultivation


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Polyethylene film mulch for irrigated groundnut


5. APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENTS
  • Apply TNAU MN mixture @ 12.5 kg /ha as Enriched FYM . (Prepare enriched FYM at 1:10 ratio of MN mixture & FYM ; mix at friable moisture &incubate for one month in shade).
  • Broadcast  evenly on the soil  surface  immediately  after  sowing.  Do not  incorporate  the micronutrient mixture to the soil.
  • To increase flower retention, pod filling and to induce drought tolerance apart from yield improvement, 2 sprays of groundnut rich @ 5.0 kg/ha (for each spray) at 35 DAS ( 50 per cent flowering) and 45 DAS (Pod developing stage) in 500 litres of water is recommended.
6. NUTRITIONAL DISORDER
Zinc deficiency:
  • Apply 25 kg ZnSO4/ha as basal. If soil analysis shows less than 1.3 ppm of zinc, soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4 is recommended.
  • Reduce ZnSO4 application from 25.0 kg ha-1 to 12.5 kg ha-1 if FYM is applied @ 12.5 t ha-1.
  • For the standing crop, less than 39.4 ppm of zinc in leaves, foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSo4 is recommended.
Iron deficiency    :  spray 1% FeSO4 on 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing.
Boron deficiency:  Apply Borax 10 kg + Gypsum 200 kg/ha at 45th day after sowing.
7. SEED RATE
Use 125 kg/ha of kernels. Increase the seed rate by 15% in the case of bold seeded varieties.
8. SPACING
Adopt a spacing of 30 cm between rows and 10 cm between plants. Wherever groundnut ring mosaic (bud necrosis) is prevalent, adopt a spacing of 15cm x 15 cm.
9. SEED TREATMENT
  • Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed.   Biocontrol agents are compatible with biofertilizers.  First treat the seeds with biocontrol agents and then with Rhizobium  Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible.
  • Treatment with Trichoderma can be done just before sowing. SUCH SEEDS SHOULD NOT BE TREATED WITH FUNGICIDES. (or)
  • Treat the seeds with Thiram or Mancozeb @ 4 g/kg of seed or Carboxin or Carbendazim at 2 g/kg of seed.
  • Treat the seeds with 3 packets (600 g)/ha of Rhizobial culture TNAU14 developed at TNAU using rice kanji as binder. If the seed treatment is not carried out, apply 10 packets/ha (2000 g) with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg of soil before sowing.
Seed treatment will protect the young seedlings from root-rot and collar rot infection.

10. SOWING
  • Dibble the seeds at 4 cm depth along with fertilizer. 
11. WEED MANAGEMENT
  • Pre-sowing: Fluchloralin at 2.0 l/ha soil applied and incorporatede followed by light irrigation.
  • Pre-emergence: Fluchloralin 2.0 l/ha or Pendimethalin @ 3.3l/ha applied on third day after sowing through flat fan nozzle with 500 l of water/ha followed by irrigation. After 35 - 40 days one hand weeding may be given.
  • Spray Imazethapyr @ 750 ml/ha at 20-30 days after sowing based on weed density as post emergence spray
  • If no herbicide is applied two hand hoeing and weeding are given on 20th and 40th day after sowing.
  • Apply, PE Oxyfluorfen @ 200 g/ha on 3rd DAS and followed by one hand weeding on 40-45 DAS
  • Apply, PE Oxadiazon @ 0.8 kg ha-1 followed by one earthing up using hoes (or) working star type weeder
  • pply, PE Metalachlor @ 1.0 kg ha-1 followed by one hand weeding on 40 DAS.






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Unweeded groundnut field

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Weed free groundnut field


12. EARTHING UP:
Accomplish earthing up during second hand weeding/late hand weeding (in erbicide application).
It is an important operation in groundnut. Earthing up is to be done within 40-45 days after sowing as it helps for the penetration of pegs in the soil and also facilitates for increased pod development.
NOTE:
  • Earthing up provides medium for the peg development 
  • Use the improved hoe with long handle which can be worked more efficiently in a standing position.
  • Do not disturb the soil after 45th day of sowing as it will affect pod formation adversely.
13. APPLICATION OF CALCIUM SULPHATE (GYPSUM)
  • Apply gypsum @ 400 kg/ha by the side of the plants on the 40th to 45th day of sowing.   Apply gypsum, hoe and incorporate in the soil and then earth up.
  • Avoid gypsum in calciferous soils.
  • Gypsum is effective in soils deficient in calcium and sulphur.
NOTE: Application of gypsum encourages pod formation and better filling up of the pods. 
Application of gypsum at the rate of 50 % basal both in rainfed and irrigated condition reduces Khadhasty malady and pod scab nematode
Combined nutrient spray
Pod filling is a major problem especially in the bold seed varieties. To improve pod filling spraying of nutrient solution is to be given. This can be prepared by soaking DAP 2.5 kg, Ammonium sulphate 1 kg and borax 0.5 kg in 37 lit of water overnight. The next day morning it can be filtered and about 32 litre of mixture can be obtained and it may be diluted with 468 lit of water so as to made up to 500 litre to spray for one ha. Plano fix at the rate of 350 ml. can also be mixed while spraying. This can be sprayed on 25th and 35th day after sowing or Spray TNAU Groundnut rich @ 5.5 kg/ha for 2 sprays at 35 (50 per cent flowering) and 45 DAS Pod developing stage).
14. WATER MANAGEMENT
Schedule the irrigation at 0.40 and 0.60 IW/CPE ratio during vegetative and reproductive phases respectively. Regulate irrigation according to the following growth phase of the crop.
Pre-flowering phase :  1 to 25 days
Flowering phase :  26 to 60 days
Maturity phase :  61 to 105 days
Regulate irrigation based on physiological growth phases. Pegging, flowering and pod development phases are critical for irrigation during which period adequate soil moisture is essential. Apply irrigation as follows:
  • Sowing or pre-sowing
  • Life irrigation, 4 - 5 days after sowing if sowing irrigation given to break the surface crust.
  • 20 days after sowing
  • At flowering give two irrigations
  • At pegging stage give one or two irrigation
In pod development stage, 2 - 3 irrigations depending on the soil type
Note:      Spraying 0.5% Potassium chloride during flowering and pod development stages will aid to mitigate the ill effects of water stress. Sprinkler irrigation will save water to the tune of about 30%. Borderstrip irrigation is recommended in command areas in light textured soils. Composted coir pith increases moisture availability and better drainage in heavy textured soil.
15. HARVESTING
  • Observe the crop, considering its average duration. Drying and falling of older leaves and yellowing of the top leaves indicate maturity.
  • Pull out a few plants at random and shell the pods. If the inner shell is brownish black and not white, then the crop has matured.
  • Irrigate prior to harvest, if the soil is dry, as this will facilitate easy harvesting. If there is enough moisture in the soil, there is no need for irrigation for harvesting.
  • If water is not available for irrigating the field prior to harvest, work a mould board plough or work a country plough, so that the plants are uprooted. Engage labour to search pods left out in the soil, if necessary.
NOTE: Do not keep the pulled out plants in heaps when they are wet, especially the bunch varieties, as the pods will start sprouting.
  • Strip off the pods from the plants. Groundnut stripper developed by TNAU can be used. 
  • Dry the pods in the sun for 4 or 5 days. Repeat drying for 2 or 3 more days after an interval of 2 or 3 days to ensure complete drying. When temperature is very high, avoid direct sun drying. Collect the pods in gunnies and store on the ground over a layer of sand to avoid any moisture coming in contact with dry pods.
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Seedling emerge at 5-10 days

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Seedling emergence stage


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Flowering stage

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Pegging stage

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Maturity stage
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CROP PHYSIOLOGY
Foliar spray of TNAU Groundnut Rich @ 2 kg/acre in 200 litres of water at peak flowering and at pod development stages increases flower retention, pod filling and improves moisture stress tolerance and pod yield.
GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea )
CROP MANAGEMENT
I. Rainfed 
1. FIELD PREPARATION
i)       Plough with tractor using a disc followed by harrow, once or twice with iron plough or
3 - 4 times with country plough till all the clods are broken and a fine tilth is obtained.
ii)      Chiselling for soils with hard pan: Chisel the soils having hard pan formation at shallow depth with chisel plough first at 0.5 m interval in one direction and then in the direction perpendicular to the previous one, once in three years. Apply 12.5 t/ha of FYM or composted coir pith besides chiselling.
  • Amendments for soil surface crusting:  a) To tide over the surface crusting, apply lime @ 2 t/ha along with FYM or composted coir pith @ 12.5 t/ha. b) Coir pith at 12.5 t/ha  converted to compost by inoculating with Pleurotus and applied serves as a good source of nutrients.
2. APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS
Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendation. If soil test is not done, follow the blanket recommendation.


3. FORMING BEDS
  • Form beds of size 10 m2 to 20 m2 depending upon the slope of the land and type of soil.
  •  Wherever tractor is engaged, bed former may be used.
  • Or Ridges and furrows may be laid at 60cm spacing between ridges and sowing taken on both sides of the ridge
  • Or Raised bed with a width of 60cm and with a furrow of 15cm on either side may be formed and sowing taken on the raised bed
4. APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENTS
Mix 12.5 kg/ha of micronutrient mixture developed by Department of Agriculture with enough dry sand to make a total quantity of 50 kg/ha. Broadcast evenly on the soil surface immediately after sowing. Do not incorporate micronutrient mixture in to the soil.
5. NUTRITIONAL DISORDER
Zinc deficiency:
  • Apply 25 kg ZnSO4/ha as basal.
  • If soil analysis shows less than 1.3 ppm of zinc, soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4 is recommended.
  • Reduce ZnSO4 application from 25.0 kg ha-1 to 12.5 kg ha-1 if FYM is applied @ 12.5 t ha-1 .
  • For the standing crop, less than 39.4 ppm of zinc in leaves, foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSo4 is recommended.
Iron deficiency: spray 1% FeSo4 on 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing. 

Boron deficiency: Apply Borax 10 kg + Gypsum 400 kg/ha at 45th day after sowing.
6. SEED RATE
Use 120 kg/ha of kernels, 175 kg/ha of kernels for bold seeded varieties.
7. SPACING
Adopt a spacing of 30 cm between rows and 10 cm between plants. Wherever groundnut ring mosaic (bud necrosis) is prevalent, adopt a spacing of 15cm x 15 cm.
8. SEED TREATMENT
  • Treat the seeds with talc formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed.     Biocontrol agents are compatible with biofertilizers. Treat the seeds with biocontrol agents first and then with Rhizobium    Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible.
  • Treat the seeds with Trichoderma @ 4g/kg. This can be done just before sowing. It is compatible with biofertilizers. SUCH SEEDS SHOULD NOT BE TREATED WITH FUNGICIDES (or)
  • Treat the seeds with Thiram or Mancozeb @ 4 g/kg of seed or Carboxin or Carbendazim at 2 g/kg of seed.
  • Treat the seeds with 3 packets (600 g)/ha of Rhizobialculture TNAU14 + 3 packets of Azospirillum (600 g/ha) and 3 packets(600 g/ha)  of Phosphobacteria or 6 packets of Azophos(1200 g/ha)developed at TNAU using rice kanji as binder. If the seed treatment is not carried out apply 10packets of Rhizobium (2000g/ha) + 10 packets of Azospirillum (2000 g/ha) and 10 packets(2000 g)  of Phosphobacteria with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg of soil before sowing.
9. SOWING
  • Use Kovai seed drill/gorru to sow the seeds in lines.
  • Put one seed in each hole. Protect the seeds from crows and squirrels.
 10. INTERCROPPING
  • Raise one row of cowpea for every five rows of groundnut wherever red hairy caterpillar is endemic.
  • Raise intercrops like redgram, blackgram, sunflower, gingelly or other pulses.
  • Cumbu can be raised as intercrop.
  • Groundnut + Gingelly or Groundnut + Blackgram in the ratio of 4:1 or Groundnut + Cowpea at 6:1 ratio and Groundnut + Sunflower at 6:2 ratio may be raised.
11. WEED MANAGEMENT
  • Pre-sowing: Fluchloralin at 2.0 l/ha soil applied and incorporated.
  • Pre-emergence: Fluchloralin 2.0 l/ha applied through flat fan nozzle with 900 l of water/ha followed by irrigation. After 35 - 40 days one hand weeding may be given.
  • If no herbicide is applied two hand weeding and hoeing are given on 20th and 40th day after sowing.
12. EARTHING UP
Accomplish earthing up during second hand weeding/late hand weeding (in herbicide application).
NOTE: i) Earthing up provides medium for the peg development  ii) Use the improved hoe with long handle which can be worked more efficiently in a standing position. iii) Do not disturb the soil after 45th day of sowing as it will affect pod formation adversely.
13. APPLICATION OF CALCIUM SULPHATE (GYPSUM)
  • Apply gypsum @ 400 kg/ha by the side of the plants on 40th to 70th day depending upon soil moisture.
  • Apply gypsum, hoe and incorporate it in the soil and then earth up.
  • Avoid gypsum in calciferous soils.
  • Gypsum is effective in soils deficient in calcium and sulphur.
NOTE: Application of gypsum encourages pod formation and better filling up of the pods.
Application of gypsum at the rate of 50 % basal both in rainfed and irrigated condition reduces Khadhasty malady and pod scab nematode
Combined nutrient spray 
                Pod filling is a major problem especially in the bold seed varieties. To improve pod filling spraying of nutrient solution is to be given. This can be prepared by soaking DAP 2.5 kg, Ammonium sulphate 1 kg and borax 0.5 kg in 37 lit of water overnight. The next day morning it can be filtered and about 32 litre of mixture can be obtained and it may be diluted with 468 lit of water so as to made up to 500 litre to spray for one ha. Plano fix at the rate of 350 ml. can also be mixed while spraying. This can be sprayed on 25th and 35th day after sowing.
14. HARVESTING
  • Observe the crop, considering its average duration. Drying and falling of older leaves and yellowing of the top leaves indicate maturity.
  • Pull out a few plants at random and shell the pods. If the inner shell is brownish black and not white, then the crop has matured.
  • Irrigate prior to harvest, if the soil is dry, as this will facilitate easy harvesting. If there is enough moisture in the soil, there is no need for irrigation for harvesting.
  • If water is not available for irrigating the field prior to harvest, work a mould board plough or work a country plough, so that the plants are uprooted. Engage labour to search pods left out in the soil, if necessary.
NOTE: Do not keep the pulled out plants in heaps when they are wet, especially the bunch varieties, as the pods will start sprouting.
  • Strip off the pods from the plants. Groundnut stripper developed by TNAU can be used.
  • Dry the pods in the sun for 4 or 5 days. Repeat drying for 2 or 3 more days after an interval of 2 or 3 days to ensure complete drying. When temperature is very high, avoid direct sun drying. Collect the pods in gunnies and store on the ground over a layer of sand to avoid any moisture coming in contact with dry pods.
15. Crop Protection







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